Comparison of two novel integral equation approaches for lossy conductor modeling

In this paper, we take a closer look at two novel boundary integral equation methods that are ideally suitable for modeling good but lossy conductors. The first method leverages the Calderón identities to precondition the homogeneous Poincaré-Steklov operator for high dielectric contrast materials. The second technique constructs an alternative formulation of the Poincaré-Steklov operator based on the eigenfunctions of the volume that avoids the numerical integration of the Green’s function in the conductive medium. Through numerical examples and performance comparison, the applicability of both single-source methods to model realistic conductors is demonstrated, illustrating their capability in characterizing 3-D interconnects.


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